Importance of Operation Overlord in the US History

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Importance of Operation Overlord in the US History
The United States (US) has grown to become a global political and economic
superpower. However, this ascension to the top of the world has not been an easy journey; rather,
it has taken enormous efforts by the nation and various significant events in the country's history.
One of these significant events is Operation Overlord. Operation Overlord, the code name for the
Battle of Normandy, was a successful invasion of Western Europe in 1944. Its main aim was to
invade German-occupied territories and end the Nazi reign over Europe (Greenwald, 2019). In
this operation, the US collaborated with other nations to form the Allied forces and fight against
the dominance and rule of Nazis in Europe. The operation's success positioned the US as one of
the politically superior nations in the world and opened the way for the end of World War II.
This paper explores this event to explain the dynamics and details of the operation and the
significance of the event to the US and its history. Operation Overlord did not just ensure the
defeat of Germany by the Allied Forces in France, but it also accelerated the end of World
War II and positioned the US as a world political and security superpower.

Operation Overlord

Operation Overlord was simply the codename given to the invasion of western Europe
through Normandy. After the beginning of World War II, Germany invaded and occupied
Western Europe, where it was rapidly gaining control and dominance over other powerful states
such as France, the United Kingdom (UK), and the Soviet Union (Bailey, 2018). The dominance
and control of the Nazis over Western Europe served as a security threat to the region, with
Germany threatening to take over Europe. This dominance highlighted the success of the Nazis
and Germany in World War II, and without invading the Germans and their territories, European
nations risked a German conquest over the area. Notably, Germany had already invaded and

occupied Northwestern France in May 1940, while it had defeated and cut off the British, forcing
their evacuation from Dunkirk (Kennedy, 1999). Thus, Operation Overlord was an invasion
mission by the allied forces, consisting mainly of the US, the UK, Canada, France, and the
Soviet Union, to join forces and stage a major Allied invasion in France to liberate the nation
from Nazi rule and stop the control and dominance of the Germans in Western Europe.
While Operation Overlord occurred on June 6, 1944, the invasion took several years to
plan and indicated the beginning of the battle of Normandy, which lasted from June 1944 to
August 1944. Greenwald (2019) indicates that this operation is the largest known invasion force
in human history, which brought together Allied forces' air, sea, and land forces. The magnitude
of the operation and the involvement of different nations meant that planning had to be
meticulous and well-coordinated. Planning for this invasion began as early as 1940, whereby
after the retreat from Dunkirk, the British began to prepare for a return to the continental
mainland to face the Germans (The week, 2019). In these early stages, planning was on an
individual basis, whereby the US started to plan its invasion after Hitler declared war on the US
in December 1941 (Kennedy, 1999). In 1942, Joseph Stalin, the Soviet leader, began to press his
allies, Franklin Roosevelt, the US president, and Winston Churchill, the British prime minister,
to mount an allied front in Western Europe (Bailey, 2018). However, the nations were limited in
technicalities as the landing craft to bring a huge army across the English Channel had not yet
been built, and most of the nations were still forming and organizing their armies for the invasion
(Evans et al., 2014). Less inhibited by these technicalities, the US pressed for an early invasion.
Dwight D. Eisenhower was chosen to head the US invasion and design and plan for an
operational scheme for the allied forces. Finally, in an inter-Allied conference in Tehran in
December 1943, Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill agreed on the adoption of May 1944 as the date

for the invasion (Kennedy, 1999). With the US providing the bulk of men and equipment,
Eisenhower was tasked with the overall Allied forces commander role, working to consolidate
the Allied forces and coordinate them for the invasion (Bailey, 2018). Through this planning
process, under the leadership of Eisenhower, the Allied forces chose to stage the invasion in
Normandy rather than Pas de Calais, the closest point in continental Europe to Britain and set
plans for combined air, sea, and land invasions.
The execution of Operation Overload relied on the deception of the Germans regarding
the real nature of the attack. The Allied forces established Operation Bodyguard, aiming to
deceive and mislead the Germans on the date of the Normandy invasion and the area where the
invasion would take place (Kennedy, 1999). Specifically, the Germans expected the invasion at
Pas de Calais, and Operation Bodyguard reinforced this belief as Allied forces continued to
consolidate and land at Normandy. The Normandy invasion began with air support of around
1,200 planes, followed by an amphibious assault of around 7,000 vessels (The Week, 2019).
Through this invasion, the allied forces delivered five naval assault divisions to the beaches of
Normandy in Utah, Gold, Juno, Sword, and Omaha, catching the Germans by surprise
(Greenwald, 2019). The invasion began at 6.30 in the morning on 6 June 1944, and by the end of
the day, the Allied forces had successfully delivered 156,000 Allied troops, who stormed and
captured Normandy's beaches (Hansen, 2019). This invasion created five key access points for
Allied forces into France and Europe.
Operation Overlord led to success for the Allied forces. In previous battles, the Germans
had managed to overpower and cut off the Allied forces, especially in the Battles of France and
Dunkirk, with the British forced to evacuate their forces in the latter (The week, 2019). These
battles had created a dominance and control of the Nazis over Western Europe as the Germans

controlled the region and protected themselves from external attacks. With Operation Overlord,
the Allied forces gained five vital access points to France and western Europe and delivered huge
numbers of troops who faced the Germans in the Battle of Normandy. In this specific operation,
the Allied forces lost more than 4,000 soldiers who died on the day of the operation, while at
least 10,000 were injured and wounded (The week, 2019). However, this successful invasion set
on course the battle of Normandy, the subsequent defeat of Germans in France, and the
continent's liberation from Nazi rule. Following this invasion, the allied forces greatly depleted
the Nazi forces in Western Europe, giving them the ability to capture Paris by 25 August and
Brussels by 3 September (The Week, 2019). From Normandy, the Allied forces advanced deep
into German territory and liberated Munich by April 1945, which led to the surrender of Nazi
Germany on 8 May 1945, bringing World War II to an end (Evans et al., 2019). Thus, Operation
Overlord provided the Allied forces with an entry point into Western Europe, setting in motion
the liberation of Europe from Nazi rule and control.

Significance of Operation Overlord

Operation Overlord is a significant event in the history of the US for various reasons.
Firstly, the operation positioned the US among security and political superpowers in the world.
By collaborating and working with the Soviet Union and the British, the US was able to stop
Nazi rule and control in Europe. This operation's success shifted global power dynamics from the
Germans to the Allied forces, and as one of the key members of this coalition, the US emerged as
a security and war superpower across the globe (Greenwald, 2019). As a security superpower,
the US played significant roles in helping stop World War II and liberation of territories from
controlling and enslaving powers such as the Germans in Europe and the Japanese in Asia
(Hansen, 2019). Evans et al. (2014) highlight that this liberation led to the establishment of

democracies in many European nations, as Operation Overlord led to the defeat of fascism.
Secondly, this operation opened the way for the end of World War II. The invasion ensured that
the allied forces positioned troops in France, who then advanced to France, Belgium, and
Germany to liberate these nations from Nazi rule. By 1945, the Nazi Germans surrendered to the
Allied forces, ending World War II. Without Operation Overlord, the war would have continued
for years as the Nazis, and Hitler would have continued to expand their territory in Europe and
terrorize individuals and communities through their cruel power (The Week, 2019). Finally,
Operation Overlord provides significant war and battle lessons for the US and other nations. As
Greenwald (2019) highlights, the planning and execution of this plan by the Allied forces
showed the power and ability of joint forces in the war, especially where the enemy is an
organization, individual, or state that threatens global security and peace. This operation serves
as a guide and a master plan of how nations can come together to address any global problem
and challenge for the betterment of society and humanity.

Operation Overlord did not just ensure the defeat of Germany by the Allied Forces in
France, but it also accelerated the end of World War II and positioned the US as a world political
and security superpower. The operation aimed to stage an invasion of Allied forces into Western
Europe to allow the forces to face and fight against Nazi German rule in the area. The operation,
which occurred on June 6, 1944, was successfully executed through the collaboration of various
nations who pooled war resources and men to position forces on the beaches of Normandy,
allowing these troops to advance into Western Europe and liberate nations from Nazi rule. This
event helped push the US into a global political and security superpower, accelerate the end of

World War II through the defeat of the Nazis, and provide a master plan for future collaborations
in war and against global problems, enemies, and emerging challenges.



Bailey, J. R. (2018). ““In this thing with both feet”: Eisenhower and Operation Overlord’s
airpower.” In T. G. Bradbeer (Ed.) Lethal and non-lethal fires: Historical case studies of
converging cross-domain fires in large-scale combat operations (pp. 1-20). Army
University Press.
Evans, M., Grey, J., Jennings, P., Besemeres, J., Stuart, N., & Lyon, R. (2014). The significance
of D-Day. The Strategist.
Greenwald, B. (2019). Why Normandy still matters: Seventy-five years on, operation Overlord
inspires, instructs, and invites us to be better joint warfighters. JPME Today, 95(4), 58-
Hansen, A. (2019). D-Day invasion: What happened and why it’s important. Family Search.
Kennedy, D. M. (1999). Freedom from fear: The American people in depression and war, 1929-
1945. Oxford University Press.
The Week. (2019). D-Day 75: Why Normandy invasion was so important.

Formal Analysis of the Indian Pass Painting by Thomas Cole

Write a description of what you see in this link, ‏
Thomas Cole the date and that’s gonna give you a clue as to which one of these is most relevant and some of the dates here century so genre are more maybe six in year six without winner your age I am at and see if that doesn’t help you see the image of a bit more clearly or give you some idea as to how you want to talk about that might be et cetera so what I’m looking for of the work through something about the world first and you’re gonna use your formal analysis or your description all the visual elements of the painting as evidence using your eyes and you’re letting your eyes see.

Formal Analysis of the Indian Pass Painting by Thomas Cole
Art forms an important part of human culture. Through art, human beings can express themselves, be creative, and preserve their history. Specifically, through the artistic process of painting, individuals can create paintings that represent imaginary or real events, places, or people. These paintings can serve as historical artifacts for future generations, storing information about the past and helping people to connect and understand the past. This essay examines one past painting by Thomas Cole. Famously known as the father of the Hudson River School, an art movement focused on Romantic landscape painting, Cole mainly focused or themed his artistic creations on natural landscapes, God, and the rise and fall of empires (Wallach 336-338). This essay then focuses on one specific painting titled Indian Pass to formally analyze it to understand why it was made and what the painting is about. The Indian Pass is a greenery landscape painting, which Cole was famous for, which helps to highlight the innate nature of the lands in America as forested and unexplored long before the invasion of Europeans on America.
The Indian Pass painting represents the Romantic landscape painting that Cole was widely famous for. According to Felker, the landscape drawings of Cole have been widely acknowledged as the stylistic model for the graphic work of the Hudson River School, and Cole is regarded as an important influence on the development of 19th-century American landscape drawing (p. 60). In the Indian Pass, this landscape drawing style is evident as the painting depicts a mountain landscape, as shown in Figure 1. In the painting, Cole presents the landscape in a painting that begins with a close-up of tall trees with huge tree trunks on the shores of a river in the foreground, a densely forested area that rises into a mountain in the middle ground, and a combination of a clouded sky around the peak of the mountain and a clear sky in the background of the painting. This combination of elements in the paintings helps to create a romantic natural landscape of a forested and mountainous area. The close-up imagery in the foreground shows a native man with a bow in hand next to a tree trunk that rises over the river. In this foreground section of the painting, branches have fallen, huge rocks on the river and its shores, and woods are covered in lichen. Unlike the middle ground, where the forest is denser, in the foreground, there are only three huge trees, one on the left, another on the center, and the other on the right side of the painting. In the middle ground of the painting, the trees are denser, creating a densely forested area that runs from the river’s shores to the top of the mountain. The mountain appears too high, such that its peak pierces through the clouds that cover a large part of the background section of the painting. However, the sky is clear on the left side of the background, and the sun appears to be rising from this side of the mountain, illuminating its light from the left side of the painting across to the right side. This depiction allows Cole to create a landscape of an early morning mountainous, forested area.
Cole might have created this landscape painting to remind his audience of the past nature of the land. While the painting was created in 1847, it has elements that prove that it might have been painted to highlight a previous period. Among these elements is the native American figure in the picture’s foreground. Cole represents this man holding a bow and in native attire, highlighting that the man was probably hunting and gathering in that part of the landscape. This depiction is despite the fact that by 1847, native Americans no longer inhabited the scenic landscape that the painter represents. Cole also shows the landscape as densely forested from the foreground to the middle ground section. The trees are close together, creating a green canopy that highlights a largely inhabited area. This depiction represents a past in which America was a largely inhabited land, full of greenery landscapes that transcended the area from the lands up to the mountains. Thus, the painting helps to bring memories of the past in which the lands in America were hugely unexplored and inhabited, covered by dense and thick forests that created green and natural landscapes such as the one Cole shows in the Indian Pass.

Figure 1: Thomas Cole, Indian Pass, 1847.
The Indian Pass is a landscape painting in which Cole highlights the nature of America long before the European invasion of America. The painting depicts the American land as hugely unexplored and inhabited, thus covered in dense forests that run across the land and into the mountains. The forests were mainly unoccupied by man, with native Americans using them for hunting and gathering. The landscapes also existed in their pure forms, with clear rivers and huge tall trees covered in lichen, which only fell by themselves and were not cut by humankind. Overall, this painting depicts a past period in which America was unexplored, and the land was covered in beautiful green and natural landscapes. 
Works Cited
Felker, Tracie. “First Impressions: Thomas Cole’s Drawings of His 1825 Trip up the Hudson River.” American Art Journal, vol. 24, no. 1/2, 1992, pp. 60–93.
Wallach, Alan. “Thomas Cole’s ‘River in the Catskills’ as Antipastoral.” The Art Bulletin, vol. 84, no. 2, 2002, pp. 334–50.

Read and analyze “Amir” by Paul Fleischmans

Read and analyze “Amir” by Paul Fleischmans

Amir by Paul Fleischman
In Seedfolks, Paul Fleischman presents short stories narrated by different people as the book follows a community garden in Cleveland. One of these narrators is Amir, who has experience living both in India and the United States (US). In his narration, Amir mainly compares experiences between the two nations, especially in how people live and treat one another. Specifically, Amir spends his childhood in Delhi and then moves to the US; thus, he can make comparisons between the two nations (Fleischman 74). Overall, the narrator suggests that while in India, people are more friendly to one another and know their neighbors, in Cleveland, people live like strangers in isolation, mainly fueled by the prejudice that people have against one another. The narrator highlights that these stereotypes about people and their races do not represent what individuals are, especially when people take the time to get to know one another as different people do at the community garden.
Amir’s narration represents how different nations and areas differ in how people live. Specifically, in this case, India differs from the US in that the former mainly consists of people from one race, while the latter brings people from different races to live together. As Amir highlights, this multiracialism in the US has fueled stereotypes people have before interacting with others. Individuals are judged based on their race and what is publicly known about that race. This issue leads to people in India being friendly and knowing their neighbors as they are all Indians, while in the US, people live in isolation as they perceive others as foes because they are from a different race (Fleischman 73). However, when people get to know one another, they realize that the stereotypes are untrue and a huge barrier to getting to know their neighbors. For example, before knowing him, an Italian woman refers to Amir as a dirty foreigner, but when they become acquaintances and see the goodness in each other, she apologizes profusely and says she did so because she did not know him (Fleischman 81). Overall, in this book, Amir represents how stereotypes limit people’s interactions in the US. 

Financial Intelligence

Paper instructions:
summarize Financial Intelligence Readings and the video provide your reflection and reaction on this topic (two pages). Please provide at least one outside reference. this video on financial intelligence as well.

Financial Intelligence
Across the world, numbers have been critical in informing human decisions and actions. In business, numbers have been particularly important in helping shareholders and stakeholders understand how their businesses are doing in the markets. This huge role of numbers in business makes it necessary for individuals to be financially intelligent. Berman and Knight define financial intelligence as the understanding of financial and business numbers, both where they are supported by facts and are uncontroversial and also where they are highly dependent on judgment calls (p. 8). This paper provides the author’s reflection and reaction to the topic of financial intelligence. Financial intelligence is important as it helps stakeholders understand their business and make informed decisions, especially as financial figures are based on biases, estimates, and assumptions.
Financial intelligence is important as finance is an art rather than a science. While many would expect that financial numbers are straightforward and clear, that is not always the case. Specifically, these numbers are never clear because financial numbers and computations involve a lot of estimations, standards and principles, and judgment calls that have to be made on a subjective rather than objective basis. As Berman and Knight highlight, many financial or accounting numbers are based on estimates and valuations that accountants have to make to report and present financial statements and records (pp. 6-9). For example, the depreciation valuation is an estimate that accountants have to make not based on solid, verifiable data but on their judgment of how long an asset will serve the company before it is rendered useless. As well, the valuation of a company is an assumed figure that differs based on whether the company judges this valuation based on earnings, expected cash flows, or the assets of the firm (Berman & Knight 15). Basically, financial intelligence becomes important in business because financial numbers are never universal and straightforward; rather, they involve a lot of assumptions, estimates, and biases that must be understood to interpret and understand these figures properly.
There are many benefits to financial intelligence. With the proper understanding of financial numbers, it becomes easy to understand the bias and estimates in the numbers (Berman & Knight 20). This understanding enables shareholders and stakeholders to understand why the figures are as they are presented. For example, when a firm purchases a piece of expensive machinery or asset with financial intelligence, stakeholders can easily understand the need for the machine based on future cash flow estimates from the new acquisition. Financial intelligence also increases the ability to critically evaluate a company (Berman & Knight 18). CEOs, managers, and workers highly need the understanding of the numbers in their company. When these people clearly understand the numbers and the estimates involved, they can gauge the company’s value, performance, and operations and even associate these issues with their individual efforts. This understanding enhances decision-making as decisions can be made based on the numbers.
Overall, stakeholders need financial intelligence to have a better understanding of their businesses. Notably, many financial figures are based on estimates, biases, and assumptions, and financial intelligence allows individuals to understand the use of these aspects in business and how they affect the company in general. With this understanding, stakeholders can make informed decisions as they understand their business, its operations, and performance well. Thus, financial intelligence is important to not just shareholders but also stakeholders. 
Work Cited
Berman, Karen and Joe Knight. Financial Intelligence: A Manager’s Guide to Knowing What the Numbers Really Mean. Harvard Business Review Press, 2013.

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